The warm weather and soil conditions at the start of April had many producers planting corn. The ground temperature was a little low, but it was above the 50 degrees where corn will start to germinate. Before most of the corn spiked, we were hit with 5 inches of rain and the temperatures plummeted. This has made for a challenging situation for plants trying to emerge.
Prior to the snow that came on Tuesday, I found that seeds have sprouted but still have a long way to go before they break the surface. The seed health was still good at the present time, but there was adverse weather ahead. While the snow did not stick around for long, temperatures are expected to fall to the mid 20’s. This is not good for getting emergence and we should expect a higher rate of seedling death as the soil temperature continues to drop.
In most cases, early planted corn will yield better than corn planted later in the season. However, producers must weigh the risks of weather events like we have just seen. It is possible that these seeds could lay in the ground 3-4 weeks before emerging. There is a good possibility that the stand may be weak and uneven.
Even though some hybrids have a higher cold tolerance than others, they all can be affected by this chilling weather. Once corn is planted, the seed needs 2 days where the soil temperature does not fall below 50 degrees to help prevent germination and seedling damage. When the temperature falls AND we get extreme moisture imbibitional chilling can occur. This causes the seed to swell from the uptake of water and can rupture causing rot. Getting through this period is critical. After this point, we rely heavily on our seed treatments and fungicides for protection.
As you scout your fields, dig up several seeds and examine them. The seeds shown above were still firm and healthy. If a producer finds a number of seeds to be soft or rotting the decision will need to be made to replant or not.
The crop insurance rules for replant are very clear. When a farmer sees the need to replant, they must call and turn in a claim prior to replanting. This only takes a second, and the adjusters will call you back with permission within 24 hours or less.
The crop insurance rules state that producers will forfeit their replant claim if notice is not given prior to replanting.
There have been several thousand acres of corn planted the first week of April. It is my guess that with the conditions we have had, a high percentage of these acres will need to be replanted.
To file a replant claim, call our office at 660-433-6300.
Early Soybean Planting
Like corn, soybean seed traits have gotten better and more tolerant to early planting. Soybeans will germinate when soil temperatures are just above 50 degrees, but emergence will still be slow. The optimum temperature for germination and emergence is 77 degrees for soybeans. Many years, we don’t see these temperatures consistently until mid to late May, though most of us will not wait that long. If conditions are dry enough to get the necessary seed to soil contact we will start planting beans at the earliest plant date. Many studies show that early planted soybeans have a yield advantage similar to that of early planted corn.
Seed treatments pay big dividends when planting soybeans early. Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) is a great concern for producers who are considering early planting. Today there are seed treatments that can help protect from sudden death. However, if you have a history of this on your fields a producer may want to error on the side of caution and plant as the soil temperature gets closer to the optimal level.
The replanting requirement for soybeans is the same as corn. Once you identify the need to replant, call in a replant claim to the office so we can get the adjusters notified. They will respond to you within 24 hours or less.